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 Author: JOLEEN LAUGHRIDGE Language: English, Spanish, Dutch Country: San Marino Genre: Technology Pages: 376 Published (Last): 25.02.2016 ISBN: 253-8-46912-885-7 ePub File Size: 22.79 MB PDF File Size: 19.33 MB Distribution: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required] Downloads: 22517 Uploaded by: CORTEZ

This book does contain a variety of exercises to practice the skills being taught. Answers are also supplied. Don't let a single approach define your vedic math. Check this PDf on, Page on hamhillfort.info It contains all basics. The book is available on Amazon. Vedic Mathematics(ORIGNAL BOOK) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.

Williams, Paperback, 52 pages, size A6. ISBN 1 01 6. Currently only available as an ebook: This is a small popular book with many illustrations, inspiring quotes and amusing anecdotes.

Atul Gupta Paperback: Preface 1. Two Simple Techniques 2. Remainder on dividing a number by 9 3. Operations with 11 4. Multiplication Nikhilam 5. Multiplication Urdhva Tiryak 6. Division 7. Simple Squares 8. Square of any number 9. Square root of a number Cubes and cube roots Auxiliary fractions Mishrank or Vinculum Simultaneous Equations Osculators Applications of Vedic maths.

This book includes various multiplication methods and checking with digit sums, division, squaring and square root, cubing and cube root, recurring decimals, divisibility testing and simultaneous equations. It also has a chapter at the end on applications of Vedic maths.

The Vedic Math Workbook - I: Speed multiplication of single digit, double digit and triple digit numbers: Volume 1. Single digit multiplication not requiring carry over 5 2. Single digit multiplication requiring carry over 6 3. Practice problems - Single digit multiplication 7 4.

Double digit multiplication not requiring carry over 9 5. Double digit multiplication requiring carry over 10 6. Practice problems -Double digit multiplication 12 7. Triple digit multiplication 16 8. Triple digit multiplication - 2nd example 18 Practice problems - Triple digit multiplication 20 9.

Answers to practice problems - Single digit multiplication 23 Answers to practice problems - Double digit multiplication 24 Answers to practice problems - Triple digit multiplication Speed multiplication of single digit, double digit and triple digit numbers using vedic math principles.

Use Fractions to Multiply!: Kids Get Vedic Math by the Tail! Book 1. John Carlin 21 Sept. Intro 2. A Basic Method 3. Starting Out 3. Synced ratios 7. Cubing Fractions 8.

## Vedic Mathematics

Synched Ratios For 3 Digits 9. My Website: About the Author. Vedic Mental Math It's all about patterns. Mathematics is applied in the proportions of gears within a simple clock. Many of the devices from a bicycle to a missile launch apply principles like those behind this book.

The book Use Fractions to Multiply! It will, however, take you deeper into the mathematical wonderland than the topical presentations you normally see in books written by those who solve complex problems without even needing to understand the process. This little book will make you better at fractions, math, and algebra. Mental math is largely about pattern recognition.

This book will help you recognize patterns you never noticed before. When you learn them, you will be well on the way toward huge strides in improved performance. The properties of specific numbers are significant, even beyond the ratios and proportions involved in this book. This book is about two digit and three digit multiplication.

Anything that results in up to six digits as a product is included. So this book will also include methods for multiplying mixed digit numbers. In Use Fractions to Multiply!: Vedic Mental Math you will learn: Full of tips, tricks, shortcuts for faster mental math, superior algebra mastery, and easy rapid math tricks.

Beginning with problems as simple as 9 times 11, this book uses the basic concepts of pattern recognition and proportional relationships to teach you to solve simple math problems. Then, it progresses smoothly forward to more complex problems, including multiplying three digit numbers like times By breaking large numbers into fractions, the problems are solved progressively from left to right. Can you multiply times 82 quickly, and in your head? You'll be able to do it after you work your way through this book.

Book 2. John Carlin; 2 edition 19 Sept. Vertically and Cross-wise 2. By One More 3. Bi-directionality 4. More on ratios 7. Visit my Website 8. Compliments Algebra 1, and all Applied Mathematics! Simple concepts based on mental mathematics and vedic mathematics can help you become a mental math champion.

Anything considered to be a two digit number has three components you can put together for a speed mathematics answer. Effortlessly do two and three digit calculations in your head Using Mental Math Help your children and grand children get better grades! The vedic math and mental mathematics concepts you will learn you may not find anywhere else. Did you know you can look at two and three digit numbers as fractions and get quick answers?

A great way for kids to learn basic vedic mathematics and learn that vedic math is fun Contains enough review so that you can read the book individually. The series does not have to be done in sequence!

On a cost benefit basis this book is a total win for the vedic math enthusiast. The book is full of tricks, tips,and amazing secrets to make you a better calculator and will make mathematics easy. Great for adults, students, nurses, tradesmen, technicians, mechanics, and machinists that do simple math everyday. Popular and Elementary Vedic Math help in minutes Great algebra refresher and reference.

John Carlin has tutored students in vedic math for years. Vedic Math. The author graduated from the U. Mukltiplication of numbers near a base 41 Proportionately 47 Multiplication by 11 50 The Numbers of 9's- 99,,, This Book presents techniques taken from ancient Vedic system that help to do calculations much faster than most of the well known techniques that we learn in high-school.

In addition, a variety of problems are solved in the book using the Vedic math techniques just to demonstrate the usefulness of this ancient art. Get Vedic Math by the Tail! Book 3. John Carlin; 2 edition 21 Sept. Squaring Two Digits in Two Steps 2.

Squaring Three Digits in Two Steps 3. Use Aliquot Parts 4. Three Digits any Numbers 5. Solve for something Else. Vedic Math and Mental Mathematics can help you do it! This book can help the math scores dramatically. The book contains five in depth sections with step by step instructions for mastering vedic mathematics. Share it with your children!

Learn about squaring two digits numbers in two steps. Mental math is so simple and easy to learn. Square three digit numbers in two steps Use the power of fractions to destroy mental math calculations that at first appear daunting. John Carlin, Mr. Vedic Math has tutored students in mental math for years. He graduated from the U. He has his own mental math website that you can view at www. Chapter 1: Simple Multiplication Method Chapter 2: Square Roots Chapter 3: Cube roots of perfect cubes Chapter 4: Base method of multiplication Chapter 5: Quantitative Aptitude Chapter 6: Syllogism Chapter 8: Two important Tips for Competitive Exam Chapter 9: Extended multiplication techniques Thank You.

This book act as short guide for those who are going to appear in various competitive exams as book contains basic ideas and technique how to solve all type of quantitative and numerical question in less time. This book also contains tips for easy calculation which is very important to solve Data interpretation question easily with time management. This book contain total 8 chapters which covers all techniques with detailed step by step example to solve questions based on time and work, boats, trains, speed, permutation, probability, combinations, syllogism, simple and compound interest, mixture, profit and loss, etc.

This book also covers base method of multiplication, addition. Finding of square root and cube root easy formula. This book also contains Vedic Maths technique to solve question. This book does not include practice set because practice set is easily available in market. But most book lack of the basic technique and idea about how to approach the question to solve.

Hope this eBook will be the stair to success for all aspirant of competitive exam. Rohit Upadhyay 10 Jan. Why Vedic mathematics? Vedic mathematical Formulae Sutras 1. Ekadhikina Purvena 2. Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah 3. Urdhva - Tiryagbyham 4. Paraavartya Yojayet 5. Shunyam Saamya Samuccaye 6. Anurupye - Shunyamanyat 7.

Sankalana - Vyavakalanabhyam 8. Puranapuranabyham 9. Calana - Kalanabyham Ekanyunena Purvena Upa - Sutras 1. Anurupyena 2. Adyamadyenantya - mantyena 3. Yavadunam Tavadunikrtya Varganca Yojayet 4. Antyayor Dasakepi 5. Antyayoreva 6. Lopana Sthapanabhyam 7.

Vilokanam 8. Samuccayagunitah III. Terms and Operations 2. Addition and Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4.

## Vedic Mathematics(ORIGNAL BOOK)

Miscellaneous Items IV. Vedic Mathematics is a system of reasoning and mathematical working based on ancient Indian teachings called Veda. It is fast, efficient and easy to learn and use. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient technique, which simplifies multiplication, divisibility, complex numbers, squaring, cubing, square and cube roots.

Even recurring decimals and auxiliary fractions can be handled by Vedic mathematics. Vedic Mathematics forms part of Jyotish Shastra which is one of the six parts of Vedas.

The Jyotish Shastra or Astronomy is made up of three parts called Skandas.

A Skanda means the big branch of a tree shooting out of the trunk. Having researched the subject for 40 years, even his efforts would have gone in vain but for the enterprise of some disciples who took down notes during his last days.

It is like coining the Nirvana into dynamos. No single mathematical creation has been more potent for the general on-go of intelligence and power.

Dutta says: The Hindus adopted the decimal scale vary early. The numerical language of no other nation is so scientific and has attained as high a state of perfection as that of the ancient Hindus.

In symbolism they succeeded with ten signs to express any number most elegantly and simply. It is this beauty of the Hindu numerical notation which attrac ted the attention of all the civilised peoples of the world and charmed them to adopt it iii In this very context, Prof.

Ginsburg says: The Hindu notation was carried to Arabia about A.

## Vedic Mathematics PDF ( Free | Pages )

Ka6ka taught Hindu astronomy and mathematics to the Arabian scholars ; and, with his help, they translated into Arabic the Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta of Brahma Gupta. The recent discovery by the French savant M. Nau proves that the Hindu numerals were well known and much appreciated in Syria about the middle of the 7th Century A -D.

Dutta further saying: From Arabia, the numerals slowly marched towards the West through Egypt and Northern Arabia; and they finally entered Europe in the 11th Century. The Europeans called them the Arabic notations, because they received them from the Arabs. But the Arabs themselves, the Eastern as well as the Western, have unanimously called them the Hindu figures.

The above-cited passages are, however, in connection with and in appreciation of Indias invention of the Z e r o mark and her contributions of the 7th century A.

In the light, however, of the hereinabove given detailed description of the unique merits and characteristic excellences of the still earlier Vedic Sutras dealt with in the 16 volumes of. De Morgan etc. It is our earnest aim and aspiration, in these 16 volumes1, to explain and expound the contents of the Vedic mathematical Sutras and bring them within the easy intellectual reach of every seeker after mathematical knowledge.

But, at the same time, we often come across special cases which, although classifiable under the general heading in question, yet present certain additional and typical characterestics which render them still easier to solve.

And, therefore, special provision is found to have been made for such special cases by means of special Sutras, sub-Sutras, corollaries etc. And all that the student of these Sutras has to do is to look for the special characteristics in question, recognise the particular type before him and determine and apply the special formula prescribed therefor.

And, generally speaking it is only in case no special case is involved, that the general formula has to be resorted to. And this process is naturally a little longer. But it need hardly be pointed out that, even then, the longest of the methods according to the Vedic system comes nowhere in respect of length, cumbrousness and tediousness etc. There are still other methods and in the latter system whereby even that very small working can be rendered shorter still!

This and the beatific beauty of the whole scheme. To start with, we should naturally have liked to begin this explanatory and illustrative exposition with a few pro cesses in arithmetical computations relating to multiplications and divisions of huge numbers by big multipliers and big divisors respectively and then go on to other branches of mathematical calculation.

But, as we have just hereinabove referred to a parti cular but wonderful type of mathematical work wherein And then we shall take up the other various parts, one by one, of the various branches of mathematical computation and hope to throw sufficient light thereon to enable the students to make their own comparison and contrast and arrive at correct conclusions on all the various points dealt with. Only the answer is writ ten automatically down by Vrdhwa Tiryak Sutra forwards or back wards.

Division continued: And the same is the case with all such divisions whatever the number of digits may b e: By the current method: By the mental Vedic one-line method: The current method is notoriously too long, tedious, cum brous and clumsy and entails the expenditure of enormous time and toil.

Only the Vedic mental one-line method is given here, The truth-loving student can work it out by the other method and compare the two for himself. By the Vedic mental one-line-method.

The same method can be used for or more places By the current method, nothing less than division will give a clue to the answer Yes or No. But by the Vedic mental one-line method by the Ekadhika-Purva Sutra , we can at once say: Square Root: By the Vedic mental one-line method: By the Vrdhwa-Tiryak Sutra.

The current method is too cumbrous and may be tried by the student himself. The Vedic mental one-line method Sutra is as follows: The current method is too cumbrous. The Vedic mental one-line method by the YavadunamTavxdunzm Sutra is as follows: The Vedic mental one-line method is as follows: Simple Equations: The Vedic method simply says: Every quadratic can thus be broken down into two binomial-factors.

And the same principle can be utilised for cubic, biquadratic, pentic etc. Summation of Series:. The current methods are horribly cumbrous.

The Vedic mental one-line methods are very simple and easy. There are several Vedic proofs thereof every one of them much simpler than Euclid's. I give two of them below: N ote: Apollonius Theorem, Ptolemys Theorem, etc. For finding the equation of the straight line passing through two points whose co-ordinates are given.

Say 9, 17 and 7, 2. By the Current Method: But this method is. But the Vedic mental one-line method by the Sanskrit Sutra Formula , II tffapfcr n Paravartya-Sutra enables us to write down the answer by a mere look at the given co-ordinates.

Loney devotes about 15 lines section , Ex. By the Vedic method, however, we at once apply the Adyamadyena Sutra and by merely looking at the quadratic write down the answer: The Vedic methods are so simple that their very simplicity is astounding, and, as Desmond Doig has aptly, remarked, it is difficult for any one to believe it until one actually sees it.

It will be our aim in this and the succeeding volumes1 to bring this long-hidden treasure-trove of mathemetical knowledge within easy reach of everyone who wishes to obtain it and benefit by it. Ekadhikena Purvena also a corollary 2. Paravartya Yojayet 5. Sunyam Samyasamuccaye 6.

Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam also a corollary4 8. Anurupyena STOW: Yavadunam SesanyanJcena Caramena Sopantyadvayamantyam Ekanyunena Purvena Gunitasamuccayah Gunakasamuccayah Gunitauiitccayah Samiumyagunitah zrfesnrfe Vyastisamastih Lopanasthdpandbhyam Vibkanam Samuccayagunitah Sub-Sutras or Corollaries.

Suffice it, for our present immediate purpose, to draw the earnest attention of every scientifically-inclined mind and researchward-attuned intellect, to the remarkably extra ordinary and characteristicnay, unique fact that the Vedic system does not academically countenance or actually follow any automatical or mechanical rule even in respect of the correct sequence or order to be observed with regard to the various subjects dealt with in the various branches of Mathe matics pure and applied but leaves it entirely to the con venience and the inclination, the option, the temperamental predilection and even the individual idiosyncracy of the teachers and even the students themselves as to what particular order or sequence they should actually adopt and follow!

This manifestly out-of-the-common procedure must doubtless have been due to some special kind of historical back-ground, background which made such a consequence not only natural but also inevitable under the circumstances in question. Immemorial tradition has it and historical research confirms the orthodox belief that the Sages, Seers and Saints of ancient India who are accredited with having observed, studied. And, consequently, it naturally follows that, in-as-much as, unlike human beings who have their own personal prejudices, partialities, hatreds and other such subjective factors distorting their visions, warping their judgements and thereby contri buting to their inconsistent or self-contradictory decisions and discriminatory attitudes, conducts etc.

They are, on the contrary, strictly and purely impersonal and objective in their behaviour etc. This seems to have been the real historical reason why, barring a few unavoidable exceptions in the shape of elementary, basic and fundamental first principles of a preliminary or pre requisite character , almost all the subjects dealt with in the various branches of Vedic Mathematics are explicable and expoundable on the basis of those very basic principles or first principles , with the natural consequence that no particular subject or subjects or chapter or chapters need necessarily precede or follow some other particular subject or subjects or chapter or chapters.

Nevertheless, it is also undeniable that, although any particular sequence is quite possible, permissible and feasible. And so, we find that subjects like analytical conics and even calculus differential and integral which is usually the bugbear and terror of even the advanced students of mathematics under the present system all the world over are found to figure and fit in at a very early stage in our Vedic Mathematics because of their being expounded and worked out on basic first principles.

And they help thereby to facilitate mathematical study especially for the small children. And, with our more-than-half-a-centurys actual personal experience of the very young mathematics-students and their difficulties, we have found the Vedic sequence of subjects and chapters the most suitable for our purpose namely, the elimina ting from the childrens minds of all fear and hatred of mathe matics and the implanting therein of a positive feeling of exuberant love and enjoyment thereof!

And we fervently hope and trust that other teachers too will have a similar experience and will find us justified in our ambitious description of this volume as Mathematics without tears.

From the herein-above described historical back-ground to our Vedic Mathematics, it is also obvious that, being based on basic and fundamental principles, this system of mathe matical study cannot possibly come into conflict with any other branch, department or instrument of science and scientific education.

And, above all, we have our Scriptures categroically laying down the wholesome dictum: In other words, we are called upon to enter on such a scientific quest as this, by divesting our minds of all pre-conceived notions, keeping our minds ever open and, in all humility as humility alone behoves and befits the real seeker after truth , welcoming the light of knowledge from whatever direction it may be forthcoming.

Nay, our scriptures go so far as to inculcate that even thir expositions should be looked upon by us not as teachings or even as advice, guidance etc. In conclusion, we appeal to our readers as we always, appeal to our hearers to respond hereto from the same stand point and in the same spirit as we have just hereinabove described.

We may also add that, inasmuch as we have since long promised to make these volumes2 self-contained , we shall make our explanations and expositions as full and clear as possible. First Example: Case 1. By the Current Method.

By the Vedic one-line mental method. First method. And the modus operandi is explained in the next few pages. The relevant Sutra reads: Ekadhikena Purvena which, rendered into English, simply says: By one more than the previous one.

Its application and modus operandi are as follows: For, in the case of addition and subtraction, to and from respectively would have been the appropriate preposition to use. But by is the preposition actually found used in the Sutra. The inference is therefore obvious that either multiplication or division must be enjoined. And, as both the meanings are perfectly correct and equally tenable according to grammar and literary usage and as there is no reasonin or from the text for one of the meanings being accepted and the other one rejected, it further follows that both the processes are actually meant.

And, as a matter of fact, each of them actually serves the purpose of the Sutra and fits right into it as we shall presently show, in the immediately following explanation of the modus operandi which enables us to arrive at the right answer by either operation.

The First method:. The first method is by means of multiplication by 2 which is the Ekadhika Purva i. For, the relevant rule hereon which we shall explain and Expound at a later stage stipulates that the product of the last digit of the denominator and the last digit of the decimal equivalent of the fraction in question must invariably end in 9.

Therefore, as the last digit of the denominator in this case is 9, it automatically follows that the last digit of the decimal equivalent is bound to be 1 so that the product of the multi plicand and the multiplier concerned may end in 9. We, therefore, start with 1 as the last i. Our modus-operandi-chart is thus as follows: But this has two digits. We therefore put the 6 down imme diately to the left of the 8 and keep the 1 on hand to be carried over to the left at the next step as we always do in all multiplication e.

But, as this is a single-digit number with nothing to carry over to the left , we put it down as our next multiplicand. We therefore put up the usual recurring marks dots on the first and the last digits of the answer for betokening that the whole of it is a Recurring Decimal and stop the mul tiplication there. Our chart now reads as follows. In passing, we may also just mention that the current process not only takes 18 steps of working for getting the 18 digits of the answer not to talk of the time, the energy, the paper, the ink etc.

In the Vedic method just above propounded, however, there are no subtrac tions at all and no need for such trials, experiments etc. All this lightens, facilitates and expedites the work and turns the study of mathematics from a burden and a bore into a thing of beauty and a joy for ever so far, at any rate, as the children are concerned.

In this context, it must also be transparently clear that the long, tedious, cumbrous and clumsy methods of the current system tend to afford greater and greater scope for the children s making of mistakes in the course of all the long multiplications, subtractions etc.

The Second method: As already indicated, the second method is of division instead of multiplication by. And, as division is the exact opposite of multiplication, it stands to reason that the operation of division should proceed, not from right to left as in the case of multi plication as expounded hereinbefore but in the exactly opposite direction i.

And such is actually found to be the case. Its application and modus operandi are as follows i Dividing 1 the first digit of the dividend by 2, we see the quotient is zero and the remainder is 1. We, therefore, set 0 down as the first digit of the quotient and prefix the Remainder 1 to that very digit of the Quotient as a sort of reverse-procedure to the.

### Krsna Tlrtha Maharaj

We, therefore, put 2 down as the third digit of the quotient and prefix the remainder 1 to that quotient-digit 2 and thus have 12 as our next Dividend.

So, we set 6 down as the fourth digit of the quotient; and as there is no remainder to be prefixed thereto, we take the 6 itself as our next digit for division. We therefore put 1 down as the 5th quotient-digit, prefix the 1 thereto and have 11 as our next Dividend. But this is exactly what we began with. This 1 1 1 means that the decimal begins to repeat itself from here. So, we stop the mentaldivision process and put down the usual recurring symbols dots.

Note that, in the first method i. A Further short-cut This is not all. As a matter of fact, even this much or rather, this little work of mental multiplication or division is not really necessary. This will be self-evident from sheer observation. Let us put down the first 9 digits of And this means that, when just half the work has been completed by either of the Vedic one-line methods , the other half need not be obtained by the same process but is mechanically available to us by subtracting from 9 each of the digits already obtained!

And the answer isas we shall demonstrate later onthat, in either method, if and as soon as we reach the difference between the numerator and the denominator i. Details o f these principles and processes and other allied matters, we shall go into, in due course, at the proper place. In the meantime, the student will find it both interesting and pro fitable to know this rule and turn it into good account from time to time as the occasion may demand or justify.

Second Example: Case 2? By the Current method: The procedures are explained on the next page. Here too, the last digit of the denominator is 9 ; but the penultimate one is 2 ; and one more than that means 3.

So, 3 is our commoni. Our modus-ojperandi-chart herein reads as follows:. And the chart reads as follows: Here too, we find that the two halves are all complements of each other from 9. So, this fits in too. Our multiplier or divisor as the case may be is now 5 i.

So, A. By multi plication leftward from the right by 5, we have. At this point, in all the 3 processep, we find that we have reached 48 the difference between the numerator and the denominator.

And yet, the remark able thing is that the current system takes 42 steps of elaborate and cumbrous dividing with a series of multiplications and subtractions and with the risk of the failure of one or more trial digits of the Quotient and so on while a single, straight and continuous processof multiplication or division by a single multiplier or divisor is quite enough in the Vedic method. The complements from nine are also there. But this is not all.

Our readers will doubtless be surprised to learnbut it is an actual factthat there are, in the Vedic system, still simpler and easier methods by which, without doing even the infinitely easy work explained hereinabove, we can put down digit after digit of the answer, right from the very start to the very end,.

We shall hold them over to be dealt with, at their own appropriate place, in due course, in a later chapter. Sutra Pass we now on to a systematic exposition of certain salient, interesting, important and necessary formulae of the utmost value and utility in connection with arithmetical calculations etc. At this point, it will not be out of place for us to repeat that there is a GENERAL formula which is simple and easy and can be applied to all cases; but there ure also SPECIAL casesor rather, types of caseswhich are simpler still and which are, therefore, here first dealt with.

We may also draw the attention of all students and teachers of mathematics to the well-known and universal fact that, in respect of arithmetical multiplications, the usual present-day procedure everywhere in schools, colleges and universities is for the children in the primary classes to be told to cram upor get by heart the multiplication-tables up to 16 times 16, 20x20 and so on.

But, according to the Vedic system, the multiplication tables are not really required above 5 x 5. And a school-going pupil who knows simple addition and subtraction of single-digit numbers and the multiplication-table up to five times five, can improvise all the necessary multiplication-tables for himself at any time and can himself do all the requisite multiplications involving bigger multiplicands and multipliers, with the aid of the relevant simple Vedic formulae which enable him to get at the required products, very easily and speedilynay, practically, imme diately.

The Sutras are very short; but, once one understands them and the modus operandi inculcated therein for their practical application, the whole thing becomes a sort of childrens play and ceases to be a problem. Let us: The Sutra: We shall give a detailed explanation, presently, of the meaning and applications of this cryptical-sounding formula.

But just now, we state and explain the actual procedure, step by step. Suppose we have to multiply 9 by 7.

A vertical dividing line may be drawn for the purpose of demarcation of the two parts. And put i. And -you find that you have got 93 i. OR d Cross-subtract in the converse way i.

And you get 6 again as the left-hand side portion of the required answer. This availablity of the same result in several easy ways is a very common feature of the Vedic system and is of great advantage and help to the student as it enables him to test and verify the correctness of his answer, step by step.

The product is 3. And this is the righthand-side portion of the answer. In fact, old historical traditions describe this cross-subtraction process as having been res ponsible for the acceptance of the x mark as the sign of multiplication. This proves the correctness of the formula. A slight difference, however, is noticeable when the vertical multiplication of the deficit digits for obtaining the right-hand-side portion of the answer yields a product con sisting of more than one digit.

For example, if and when we have to multiply 6 by 7, and write it down as usual: This difficulty, however, is easily surmounted with the usual multiplicational rule that the surplus portion on the left should always be carried over to the left. Therefore, in the present case, we keep the 2 of the 12 on the right hand side and cairy the 1 over to the left and change the 3 into 4.

We thus obtain 42 as the actual product of 7 and 6. A similar procedure will naturally be required in respect of other similar multiplications: This rule of multiplication by means of cross-subtraction for the left-hand portion and of vertical multiplication for the right-hand half , being an actual application of the absolute algebraic identity: Thus, as regards numbers of two digits each, we may notice the following specimen examples: The base now required is Note 1: In all these cases, note that both the cross-sub tractions always give the same remainder for the left-hand-side portion of theanswer.

Note 2: Here too, note that the vertical multiplication for the right-hand side portion of the product may, in some cases, yield a more-than-two-digit product; but, with as our base, we can have only two digits on the right-hand side. We should therefore adopt the same method as before i.

Thus 88 12 88 12 91 9 98 2. The rule is that all the other digits of the given original numbers are to be subtracted from 9 but the last i. Thus, if 63 be the given number, the deficit from the base ' is 37; and so on. This process helps us in the work of ready on-sight subtraction and enables us to pu,t the deficiency down immediately. A new point has now to be taken into consideration i. What is the remedy herefore?

Well, this contingency too has been provided for. And the remedy isas in the case of decimal multiplicationsmerely the filling up of all such vacancies with Zeroes. With these 3 procedures for meeting the 3 possible contingencies in question i. Y e s ; but, in all these cases, the multiplicand and the multiplier are just a little below a certain power of ten taken as the base.

What about numbers which are above it? And the answer is that the same procedure will hold good there too, except that, instead of cross-subtracting, we shall have to cross-add. And all the other rules regarding digit-surplus, digit-deficit etc. In passing, the algebraical principle involved may be explained as follows: Y e s ; but if one of the numbers is above and the other is below a power of 10 the base taken , what then?

The answer is that the plus and the minus will, on multi plication, behave as they always do and produce a nunus-product and that the right-hand portion obtained by vertical multi.

A vinculum may be used for making this clear. Note that even the subtraction of the vinculumportion may be easily done with the aid of the Sutra under discussion i. Multiples and sub-multiples: Yes ; but, in all these cases, we find both the multiplicand and the multiplier, or at least one of them, very near the base taken in each case ; and this gives us a small multiplier and thus renders the multiplication very easy.

What about the multiplication of two numbers, neither of which is near a con venient base? The needed solution for this purpose is furnished by a small Upasutra or sub-formula which is so-called because of its practically axiomatic character. This sub-sutra consists of only one word Anurupyena which simply means Proportionately. In actual application, it connotes that, inwall cases where there is a rational ratio-wise relationship, the ratio should be taken into account and should lead to a proportionate multiplication or division as the case may be.

A concrete illustration will make the modus operandi clear. Suppose we have to multiply 41 by Both these numbers are so far away from the base that by our adopting that as our actual base, we shall get 59 and 59 as the deficiency from the base. And thus the consequent vertical multiplication of 59 by 59 would prove too cumbrous a process to be per missible under the Vedic system and will be positively inad missible. We therefore, accept merely as a theoretical base and take sub-multiple 50 which is conveniently near 41 and 41 as our working basis, work the sum up accordingly and then do the proportionate multiplication or division, for getting the correct answer.

Our chart will then take this shape:. OR, secondly, instead of taking as our theoretical base and its half The product of 41 and 41 is thus found to be the same as we got by the first method.

OR, thirdly, instead of taking or 10 as our theoretical base and 50 a sub-multiple or multiple thereof as our working base, we may take 10 and 40 as the bases respectively and work at the multiplication as shown on the margin here. As regards the principle underlying and the reason behind the vertical-multiplication operation on the right-hand-side remaining unaffected and not having to be multiplied or divided proportionately a very simple illustration will suffice to make this clear.

We may write down our table of answers as follows: And this is why it is rightly called the remainder fiar stanr: Here 47 being odd, its division by 2 gives us a fractional quotient 23j and that, just as half a rupee or half a pound or half a dollar is taken over to the right-hand-side as 8 annas or 10 shillings or 50 cents , so the half here in the 23J is taken over to the righthand-side as In the above two cases, the J on the left hand side is carried over to the right hand as Most of these examples are quite easy, in fact much easier-by the 3;s fo?

They have been included here, merely for demonstrating that they too can be solved by the Nikhilam Sutra expounded in this chapter. The First Corollary: The first corollary naturally arising out of the Nikhilarh Sutra reads as follows: This evidently deals with the squaring of numbers.

A few elementary examples will suffice to make its meaning and application clear: Suppose we have to find the square of 9.

The following will be the successive stages in our mental working: Now, let us take up the case of As 8 is 2 less than 10, we lessen it still further by 2 and get 82 i. We work exactly as before ; but, instead of reducing still further by the deficit, we increase the number still further by the surplus and say: And then, extending the same rule to numbers of two or more digits, we proceed further and say: Thus, if 97 has. In the present case, if our b be 3, a-f-b will become and ab will become This proves the Corollary.

This corollary is specially suited for the squaring of such numbers. Seemingly more complex and diffi cult cases will be taken up in the next chapter relating to the Vrdhva-Tiryak Siitra ; and still most difficult will be explained in a still later chapter dealing with the squaring, cubing etc. The Second Corollary. The second corollary is applicable only to a special case under the first corollary i. Its wording is exactly the same as that of the Sutra which we used at the outset for the conversion of vulgar fractions into their recurring decimal equivalents i.

The Sutra now takes a totally different meaning altogether and, in fact, relates to a wholly different set-up and context altogether. So, one more than that is 2. The Algebraical Explanation is quite simple and follows straight-away from the Nikhilam Sutra and still more so from the Vrdhva-Tiryak formula to be explained in the next chapter q.

A sub-corollary to this Corollary relating to the squaring of numbers ending in 5 reads: AntyayorDaiake'pi and tells us that the above rule is applicable not only to the squaring of a number ending in 5 but also to the multiplication of two numbers whose last digits together total 10 and whose previous part is exactly the same.

We can proceed further on the same lines and say: At this point, however, it may just be pointed out that the above rule is capable of further application and come in handy, for the multiplication of numbers whose last digits in sets of 2,3 and so on together total , etc. Note the added zero at the end of the left-hand-side of the answer.

The Third Corollary: Then comes a Third Corollary to the Nikhilam Sutra, which relates to a very special type of multiplication and which is not frequently in requisition elsewhere but is often required in mathematical astronomy etc.

The wording of the subsutra corollary Ekanyunena Purvena sounds as. It actually is ; and it relates to and provides fot multiplications wherein the multiplier-digits consist entirely of nines. It comes up under three different headings as follows: The First case: The annexed table of products produced by the single digit multiplier 9 gives us the necessary clue to an under standing of the Sutra: We observe that the left-hand-side is invariably one less than the multiplicand and that the right-side-digit is merely the complement of the left-bandside digit from 9.

And this tells us what to do to get both the portions of the product. As regards multiplicands and multipliers of 2 digits each, we have the following table of products: And this table shows that the rule holds good here too. And by similar continued observation, we find that it is uniformly applicable to all cases, where the multiplicand aiid the multiplier consist of the same number of digits. In fact, it is a simple application of the Nikhilam Sutra and is bound to apply.

We are thus enabled to apply the rule to all such cases and say, for example: Such multiplications involving multipliers of this special type come up in advanced astronomy e t c ; and this sub formula Ekanyunena Purvena is of immense utility therein.

The Second Case: The second case falling under this category is one wherein the multiplicand consists of a smaller number of digits than the multiplier. This, however, is easy enough to handle ; and all that is necessary is to fill the blank on the left in with the required number of zeroes and proceed exactly as before and then leave the zeroes out.

Thus 7 79 79 99 99 ? To be omitted during a first reading The third case coming under this heading is one where the multiplier contains a smaller number of digits than the multiplicand. Careful observation and study of the relevant table of products gives us the necessary clue and helps us to understand the correct application of the Sutra to this kind of examples. We note here that, in the first column of products where the multiplicand starts with 1 as its first digit the left-handside part of the product is uniformly 2 less than the multi plicand ; that, in the second column where the multiplicand begins with 2, the left-hand side part of the product is exactly 3 less ; and that, in the third column of miscellaneous firstdigits the difference between the multiplicand and the lefthand portion of the product is invariable one more than the excess portion to the extreme left of the dividend.

The procedure applicable in this case is therefore evidently as follows: This gives us the left-hand-side portion of the product. Practice Lesson 5. Practice Lesson 6. Practice Lesson 7. Practice Lesson 8. Practice Lesson 9. Practice Lesson Published by: Road Ind.

Area, Ghaziabad U. Anil Kumar Teotia Sr. Publication Team Navin Kumar, Ms. Radha, Jai Baghwan Pages Addition - Completing the whole 2. Addition from left to right 3. Addition of list of numbers - Shudh method 4.

Subtraction - Base method 5. Subtraction - Completing the whole 6. Subtraction from left to right. Base Method 2. Sub Base Method 3. Vinculum 4.

Multiplication of complimentary numbers 5. Multiplication by numbers consisting of all 9s 6. Multiplication by 11 7. Multiplication by two-digit numbers from right to left 8. Multiplication by three and four-digit numbers from right to left. Squaring 1.

Squaring numbers ending in 5 2. Squaring Decimals and Fraction 3. Squaring Numbers Near 50 4. Squaring numbers near a Base and Sub Base 5. General method of Squaring - from left to right 6. Number splitting to simplify Squaring Calculation 7. Algebraic Squaring Square Roots 1.

Reverse squaring to find Square Root of Numbers ending in 25 2. Square root of perfect squares 3. General method of Square Roots.

John L. Lehet www. Why Vedic Mathematics? Gunita Samuccayah: Three Proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem. Details Author: