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Colloquial Turkish provides a step-by-step course in Turkish as it is written and spoken today. You have download access for this title. title:Colloquial Turkish: The Complete Course forBeginners Colloquial Download To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge's collectionof thousands of eBooks please go to www. Books Download Colloquial Turkish (PDF, ePub, Mobi) by Jeroen Aarssen Read Online Full Free.

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Are 4e going 0ack to BritainM 8statement about near future: Bn the d0neli case the speaker himself does the proposal. The first and second sentence can 0e said 0y a hus0and to his 4ife or 5ice 5ersa, 4hen they are -nglish and ha5e 0een li5ing in Turkey for quite some time; the third 0y their child 4ho has o5erheard them talking a0out it. Bn the d0necek case the decision has already 0een made 4ithout the speakerHs kno4ledge.

The first can also 0e an ironic statement, said to the tra5el companion 4ho hasnHt stopped moaning since arri5ing in Turkey. Exercise 6. Try to propose the follo4ing in Turkish: Fou can also use the 5er0 iste ek. This con5eys a more definite, 4ell. B 4ant to take 7or 0uy8 0akla5a. Mocuklar patates ye ek istiyorlar: The children 4ant to eat potatoes.

Therefore, you are ready to go to the shop. Bn the second case, youHre in the shop or at the restaurant, 4here you decide on the spot that you 4ant to ha5e some 0akla5a. To 0ring things into focus, fill in the follo4ing items in the tree diagram 0elo4, so that it reflects the relation 0et4een the Turkish forms at the 0ottom and the functions a0o5e them. The first peculiarity occurs 4hen the 5er0 stem ends in 3e or 3a.

T4o frequently used one. Telling the ti e. They are used in telling the times 0et4een the hours. Bn the first half hour d0rt is your reference point; in the second half hour be, is. Ef those, the first num0er is in the accusati5e case and the other one is in the dati5e case.

This gi5es us: Zrt 0uSuk. Saat 0eXte kalkan 0ir tren 5ar miM 2E69A;: Tam 0eXte kalkan 0ir tren yok muM 2E69A;: Bn these modern times it is also possi0le to resort to digital time. Fou often use this at places like airports and train stations.

Drite the digital times in full, and con5ert them into regular Turkish time. Bn ans4ering these, the locati5e case 7. BtHs starting at eight thirty. Dhen does the plane arri5eM At ten. Fou may choose 0et4een three locations: Fou may say: Fou may ha5e to state from 4hen until 4hen you 4ill 0e or 4ere at a gi5en place.

FouHll ha5e to use the. Exercise ,, Try to sort out AliHs daily schedule 0y rearranging times and actions. Ase the locati5e ending.

Choose from the follo4ing actions: Belo4, you 4ill find a lot of time 4ords 7most occur throughout this 0ook8. BugRn 9ehmet de gelmedi. Bak, ne dedimM UXte, 9ehmetN 8! E" A;: Vimdiye kadar, aday listesinde tek 0ir isim 5ar:. Ben 0aXka 0ir kiXiyi aday gZstermek istiyorum. BaXkan gZre5ine en uygunu odur.

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Turistik seyahat dRnyasPnda iyi iliXkileri 5ar. Bt refers to 7static8 situations that ha5e a timeless, general character. Turkish 4orkers 4ork in factories.

Bf B donHt kno4, B ask. Fou lea5e your luggage. Bn the e5enings B take my neigh0our home, 0ecause 4e 4ork at the same place.

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There is a set of frequently used 5er0s, all consisting of a one. Therefore, you can use it to talk a0out ha0its. B drink more coffee than tea. Bn summer, my grandfather takes his sheep to the meado4. Fou may use it in:. Bnflation causes unemployment to rise.

Bn August they har5est the 4heat. B speak Turkish. Bn the summer months 4e 4ork as guides. Ialan s0ylersin: She lo5es soap operas. Fou tell lies. Boktora gidersin: B 4ould take a pill 7if B 4ere you8. B 4ould take Bursa ke0ap 7suggestion8. Fou should see a doctor. This not only relates to qualities of persons. Bt is quite common to ask a 0us dri5er a0out the direction of the 0us, as: The effect of politeness is e5en stronger 4hen the question is negati5e.

Could you come pleaseM Bs such a thing possi0leM. Choose from the follo4ing: Asing 3iyor signals that the action is ongoing. Bt also means that you are a0le to say 4hen this action started and 4hen it 4ill pro0a0ly end. Fou donHt kno4 for sure 4hether it is actually happening. O asan comes3is coming. H This refers to something that is happening no4 or 4ill surely happen in the near future. Bt is not a statement a0out an actual action taking place; it is not e5en clear 4hen 7if at all8 asan 4ill come.

H8 Exercise ". Bu olay kuXlarP mah5etti. Enun iSin 0u sa0ah 5eterinere telefon ettim. BHll ne5er forget you. De donHt say it like that in Turkish. She doesnHt eat meat. Turn the follo4ing sentences into negati5es.

H8b9a4taya sana u1ra a: Buyurun, ne iSersinM A2U: Carsa, orta Xekerli kah5e iSeyim. Rlya anPm, iki tane orta Xekerli kah5e getirir misinM 8to 'li: Sadece, 0ir XartP 5ar. Ali Bey, aslPnda sana 0ir soru sormadPm, emir 5erdim. Sen istenilen Xartlara uymak durumundasPn. Bt is placed right after the 5er0 stem, 0ut 0efore the tense marker 73iyorC3diC3ecek etc.

B am a0le to come3B can come3 B may come. The negati5e form of 3ebil is 3e e Onot a0le toH: Ounu bile e: B cannot kno4 that. B cannot understand that. They cannot gi5e orders to me. De didnHt kno4 4hat to do. Bn first person questions, 3ebil is typically used for asking permission: Bn choosing 0et4een these t4o possi0ilities, think of the difference in -nglish 0et4een OB shouldH and OB 4as going toH.

Gel elisin: Fou must come. FouHll come3youHll ha5e to come. Fou should learn -nglish 4ell. The t4o parties should 0e prepared for a coalition. This com0ination is used for generalised sentences such as: Ene should stand up. Ene should not lea5e. Four team has to 4ork faster. Dhen you 4ant someone else to do something, you can use one of the follo4ing 4ays: Bf you say O: The Turkish counterpart, ho4e5er, is far more common and less impolite.

The singular form of the imperati5e is similar to the stem of the 5er0: Bt is usually said 4ith a sigh. Dhen you are talking to more than one person you use the plural form of the imperati5e: The Ostemc3inH form is also a slightly more polite 4ay to address single persons.

Bn pu0lic places, in trains, on planes etc. The imperati5e is also used in recipes. Bulgur pilav. Dialogue 1 Ne almak i! Feni 0ir etek almam gerek, gelecek hafta eQlence 5ar. Vu an 0ir fikrim yok. Fa senM. Sana alacaQPm Xunu. E Can!. Eraya nasPl giderM U26;A": Eto0Rsle gitmesi gerek herhalde. Ben de AyXe anPmHa gitmek istiyorum. Ben de, yemeQine 0ayPlPyorum.

Bilmiyorum, gali0a kitap okuyacaQPm. Say in your o4n 4ords 4hat 4ent on in this dialogue. Try to imagine you o5erheard the con5ersation and are no4 telling a mutual friend a0out it.

Fou can al4ays refer to the: Fou are familiar 4ith 5er0s that ha5e tense and person endings, such as 3iyoru or 3dik. These forms indicate for instance that the action is on. They also signal 4ho did or is doing the descri0ed action 7compare okuyorsun Oyou are readingH and okuyorlar Othey are readingH8.

OB 4ant to LH. There is no need to repeat them 4ith the other 5er0. As 4e sa4 earlier, Turkish uses 3ebil3; 3 eli or gerek instead. But the infiniti5e is used 4here -nglish 4ould use the construction: This is the normal 4ay of saying these kinds of things in Turkish.

To translate OplayingH, you use the 7short8 infiniti5e on 3 e; oyna a. There is another reason 4hy you need to kno4 the infiniti5e: Bt is therefore important that, 4hen you encounter an unfamiliar 5er0, you are a0le to strip it of its endings and reconstruct its infiniti5e form. Turkish infiniti5es end in 3 ek or 3 ak 7in dictionaries8. Bn actual sentences, they also often end in 3 e or 3 a.

Bn 0oth, 4hat precedes the 3 3; is the 5er0 stem. Omy goingH. De 4ant to go to America as 4ell. B 4anted to 0uy peppers. The 4ord for OtryH is the same as for O4orkH: Bf this follo4s an infiniti5e, the meaning 0ecomes Oto tryH 7compare the -nglish Oto 4ork onH8. BHm trying to learn Turkish. The is usually 4ritten as y: BHm going home to see the match.

There is not really much of a difference in meaning 0et4een the t4o forms of the infiniti5e; if anything, you could translate the. The construction is: She has to do this. There is, ho4e5er, also a 5er0 gerek ek Oto 0e necessaryH. Bn the present tense, i. This is logical if you realise that the 3iyor tense is often translated 0y -nglish O. De had to stay in Turkey a 0it longer. B ha5e to eat more fruit. Fou 7all8 ha5e to help me.

Fou ha5e to say OyesH. Fou ha5e to 4ait a little. Bn question forms a funny thing happens: An alternati5e, some4hat more formal, is gerekli de1il. Bt is really not necessary that you do this.

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Bt is necessary that you donHt do this. Fou donHt ha5e to fill this out. Another 4ay of saying this is: ThereHs no need to fill this out. H The 5er0 Oto returnH is d0n ek. Dork out the dictionary forms for all of them and look up their meaning in the glossary.

They are all frequently used and most ha5e not appeared in the dialogues so far. That means that this infiniti5e is often marked 4ith a case marker.

Dell, e nun ol ak Oto 0e pleasedH requires that the 4ord it co. Bnfiniti5es are often used in Turkish 4ith case marking. Ade eyi unuttu: B forgot to pay. Bn general, it 4ill 0e a good educated guess that Turkish 4ill use an infiniti5e construction 4hen -nglish has one. This also 4orks the other 4ay round: H Turkish does this too.

B like running. B like listening to music. Dhen a 5er0 ending in 3 e is follo4ed 0y a possessi5e marker, a case marker follo4ing this has to 0e preceded 0y an 3n3. This marker is preceded 0y the 3n. She doesnHt 4ant her dad to smoke. Oin order toH. A0o5e, 4e ha5e said that the. Bf you 4ant someone else to do something, you ha5e to use the short infiniti5e. This has to 0e marked on the infiniti5e 4ith the second person singular OyouH possessi5e ending 3in. Since these endings cannot possi0ly 0e attached to 3 ek infiniti5es, the short 5ersion must 0e used: Seen in isolation, the form yap a can mean t4o things: Also, in speech they sound 5ery different.

B0rtten sonra gel e? Bt annoyed him that B didnHt come. Bdentify the 5er0 4ith 4hich these sentences end. Bdentify them. Conversation N ran and mdat9 U9?

Feni 0ir park mRsaadesi iSin 0aX5urmam gerekti. Buna ne dersinM U9? As in -nglish, t4o nouns can 0e com0ined to form a compound noun. BtHs 0est to learn these compounds as one 4ord. Bn order to remind yourself of the possessi5e marker, it might 0e helpful to think of Turkish compounds as literally saying: Othe air, its fieldH, or Othe 0ed, its roomH.

There is one more thing you should 0e a4are of: As you see illustrated o5erleaf, you can encounter compounds e5ery4here: T8rkiye Cu huriyeti OTurkish "epu0licH on the stamp, and a 4hole lot of them on the 0us ticket: Bf a compound noun is follo4ed 0y a possessi5e marker that is not the third person marker, i. Bnstead, you replace the. Speakers increasingly lea5e out the possessi5e ending. A "ussian firm has 0ecome the ne4 o4ner.

B like! Actually, for OAmericanH, 0oth! BHm married to an American 4oman. Sometimes names of languages can com0ine 4ith a noun that is not marked 4ith the possessi5e marker. The result has a different meaning. Take the follo4ing pair:. Both com0ine the meanings O-nglishH and O0ookH. Both denote a 0ook, 0ut they differ in meaning. The second com0ination, on the other hand, is a compound, as can 0e seen from the possessi5e ending on kitap.

Bn Othe coat is redH, for instance, something is said a0out the coat you didnHt kno4, namely that it is red. Turkish is a lot like -nglish, in that the t4o uses are like4ise distinguished 0y different 4ord orders. Ie,il araba means Ogreen carH, 4hile araba ye,il means Othe car is greenH. Exercise 8. Just a little question to keep you on guard: The other three are more straightfor4ard for -nglish speakers: Baterial ad3ecti,es.

So a Oleather suitcaseH is a deri bavul; not a deri bavulu. Exercise Fou can use this lesson to re5ie4 4hat you ha5e learnt Ya chance to catch up so to speakY0efore mo5ing ahead again. De 4ill no4 go o5er a fe4 of these different structures, and point out some consistencies and principles that should make it easier for you to grasp them if you ha5enHt succeeded in doing so already.

The plural, for instance, is formed 0y adding Gs to the noun, as in OhouseGsH. De hope that, no4 that youH5e got this. Ene area 4here you can get a4ay 4ith using an -nglish. The normal 4ay of saying Omy hus0andH is koca3 ; 0ut beni koca is not impossi0le in colloquial Turkish. Try to put yourself under time pressure: Eld 0uildings are not that clean.

The last three sentences ha5e no numeral to make clear 4eHre talking a0out more than one friend, dog, or 0uilding, respecti5ely. Fou ha5e the choice then either to mark the plural on the noun, as in the second and third sentences, or not at all. All this is only rele5ant for the third person plural OtheyH; first and second person plural forms of the 5er0 7O4eH and OyouH8 ha5e their o4n unique endings: The three of us are 5ery happy.

The others are 5ery stupid. T4o things are important here: There is much 4ater there. Dhat a 0eautiful house you 8plural: Iunanistan kal a Accusati,e case. Bt cannot 0e emphasised enough that the Turkish accusati5e case and the -nglish definite article are only partially equi5alent. Eur guest has 0rought us these flo4ers. After talking for a long time 4e reached a conclusion. Dhen BHm on holiday, B send postcards to all my friends.

Festerday, B lost a lot of time. Fou think of possessi5es as indicating, 4ell, possession, as in baba ; Omy fatherH. But no0odyHs o4ning the oda in. And then, once you ha5e mastered that, you 4ill pro0a0ly go on ha5ing some trou0le deciding 4hen 14T to add the possessi5e marker. The 0asic rule is that if you really feel that the t4o form a unit together, then it is a compound and you use the possessi5e marker.

The most tricky type of com0ination is 4hen you ha5e a 4ord denoting the name of a country as the first 4ord.

Translate the follo4ing compounds into -nglish: Bn 2esson , you sa4 another type of construction in 4hich t4o nouns com0ine 4ith each other: This is logical: Fou ha5e no4 seen three 4ays of com0ining t4o nouns. The second one means Othe end of the 4eekH, something you are more likely to 0uild up 4hen you need it. Bol 5itaminli. TeXekkRr ederim ama, gali0a doktora gitmeye gerek yok.

AkXamlarda 8my poor dad: SanPyorum, kocam Ximdi 8the train from 'n ara: BugRn 8Tur ish cuisine: Choose from these options: An interesting pro0lem arises 4hen you 4ant to say Otheir childrenH, i.

These dou0le forms do not occur, ho4e5er: Bt can 0e any of the follo4ing: The o05ious question is: So the only plausi0le interpretation that is likely to force itself upon you is O4e cleaned their houseH. The only pro0lem for the -nglish. The form consists of ev OhouseH and 3leri OtheirH. Sometimes, speakers use geniti5e pronouns in a helpful 4ay, usually to a5oid am0iguity. Because of the need for case markers in practically e5ery sentence, the follo4ing sequences are also common: Dith the other persons, the possessi5e ending makes only one interpretation possi0le.

She didnHt in5ite my friends. Bf the person 4ho says the follo4ing sentence is talking to you directly, it is likely that he means Oyour lettersH 7unless you ha5e ne5er sent him anyN8. B lo5e your letters. B lo5e his3their letters. FukarPda, sol tarafta 0irinci odadPr.

Bn Turkish, these pronouns are usually not necessary. Just 0e a4are that they usually add emphasis. The 0asic personal pronouns are. Bf yours is a language, 4hich uses pronouns a lot, such as -nglish, it is hard to 0reak the ha0it 4hen learning a language that doesnHt normally use them,. De are guests here, you are not. DeHre guests here. They are 5ery s4eet. Mok tath: Exercise Bnsert pronouns in the spaces only 4here you think they are needed. BA A": Fou ha5e learned many 4ords in the preceding nine lessons, 0ut many of them ha5e only occurred once, so that you ha5e pro0a0ly forgotten quite a fe4.

Connect the 4ords on the left 4ith those on the right that mean something similar: Change the follo4ing sentences 0y replacing the 4ord in parentheses 4ith a 7near8 synonym, chosen from the list at the 0ottom.

Be sure any endings take their right form. Bf you feel ad5enturous and3or self. Bn Turkish, too, sentences can 0e com0ined in this 4ay. This lesson 4ill introduce the first rele5ant forms.

A sentence can consist of a main clause and any num0er of su0ordinated clauses, or of t4o or more coordinated clauses. Dhen you think of su0ordinated clauses, you are most likely to think of clauses that start 4ith OthatH or O4hichH in -nglish. Eften these go 4ith 5er0s such as OthinkH or OsayH, as in: DhatHs the title of the 0ook that you boughtM? Ether common types of su0ordinated clauses are OifH and O4henH clauses. Bn many cases, they really are the normal 4ay of saying things.

Bf you 4ant to, you can manage 4ithout them 0y using t4o sentences, such as: B talked a0out the man. This man 4orks at my 4orkplace. De met these people.

De got to kno4 them last 4eek. B talked a0out a man 4ho 4orks at my 4orkplace. De met the people 4e got to kno4 last 4eek. To check your understanding, ans4er the questions 0elo4 and look at the 6ey.

Funda and! BaXka ne 5ar, ne yokM! Ali de aynPsPnP dedi. FarPnki ha5a raporunu duydun muM!

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Uyi geceler. Uyi geceler, 9ustafa. Ans4er the follo4ing questions: The basic subordinate clause. Fou 4ill soon realise that the 0asic structure of all su0ordinate clauses is al4ays the same. That structure, in a nutshell, is: This order is the mirror image of that in -nglish, 4here the main clause comes first, then the su0ordination marker and finally the su0ordinated clause. Bn -nglish you say: See Lesson 1 torefresh your memory. The different forms are: Final vowel of the stem: The personal endings are not exactly thesame as for the present tense.

Again, these endings, indicating both past tense and subject, attach to verb stems andare subject to vowel harmony. In addition, the -d-, with which the past tense suffix starts, is sometimes changed into-t-. This depends on the last sound of the stem: That means that there are even more possibilities: Here are some examples of the past tense with -di: I saw a good programme on TV last night.

What time did you get up this morning? Exercise 2Find out the dictionary forms the infinitives of the following verb forms and lookthem up in the Glossary to find their meanings. Then work out exactly what each verb form means. Thefirst one has been done as an example.

Exercise 3Fill in the right vowel in the sentences below. Remind yourself first of the rules forvowel harmony and of which one of the two types you need to use for the -iyor and -ditenses. Translations of the sentences, which contain many useful new words,are given in the Key. Obviously, you will need to learn how tounderstand these questions before you can answer them.

Several questions are used inthe dialogues of this lesson, and in Lesson 3 we will look into them in detail. Nevertheless, you may have already developed a bit of a feel for how questions andnegative answers are formed in Turkish on the basis of examples in the dialogues.

Totest these intuitions, try to translate the following little dialogue. Nerede oturuyorsunuz? Ne zaman geldiniz? Bu sabah geldim. Exercise 5Go back to the verbs given in Exercise 2, and change their tense from -iyor into -di andvice versa.

The first one has been done: The rule is that the -iyor and -diendings apply to verbs only, never to nouns or adjectives. Language pointsAdverbs of timeTenses often go hand in hand with time words. Here are some of the most importantof those words related to time: In the mornings, I get up early. We arrived here on Wednesday. Exercise 6The following sentences all contain a time adverb.

The verb has not been given theproper tense ending yet. Your job is to supply it. Choose between -iyor and -di, andmake sure you use the right form of those, as has been done for the first sentence. You is plural here! You can probably guess most of these words without knowing any Turkish. Now for theother ones: Canyou work out what these words are? Page 34 The last option is impossible in the Turkish spelling system,as the combination of two vowels in a row is simply ruled out.

This is not a universal rule; in other cases, the vowel of the suffix is lost e. But be thatas it may, -iyor absorbs the last vowel of a verb stem if that stem ends in one. Page 35 Vowel harmony with the last vowel before that one, i in the case of istemek, thendecides the actual form of the -iyor suffix, giving us istiyor.

So, when you have the time and in writing you usually do , think of the following rule: Remember to apply the correctvowel harmony rules: Hadi, abi, anlatsana!

Niye abi? Arabalar hep sol taraftan gider! Try to figure out what thismeans. So why was Ali flabber-gasted?

Colloquial Turkish : The Complete Course for Beginners. Ad Backus, Jeroen Aarssen

How did Alireturn home? London has many What are those eskibinalar which seem to fascinate Ali? He mentions a few: There you have three new words to add to yourvocabulary!

Who would that be? Alas, he could notaccept the invitation because vaktim yoktu, he had no time. The interest ofthe Turks in CentralPage 38 Asia is not strange, considering that, for instance, the Uzbek, Kazakh and Kirghizpeople speak a language that is quite similar to Turkish.

Anatolia has not always been the area where Turkish or rather, Turkic people lived. The Seljuks in Persia were Turkic as well.

A branch of these Seljuks wereamong the first Turks to arrive in Anatolia. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was overrun byMongol hordes, but especially the city of Konya preserves many good examples ofSeljuk buildings. The Ottomans ambitiously developed their Empire and werestrong enough to beat the Byzantines. Reforms of later sultans, efforts to modernise andwesternise, were in vain and could not prevent the decline of the once mighty empire. Page Nerede? O kim? Nerede oturuyor? Who is that?

Where does she live? She lives in Ankara. Does she work? No, she is studying at Ankara University. Language pointAsking questionsThere are two types of questions in this conversation.

The major question words are: In -iyor and -di sentences, question words appear either at the beginning of a sentence,or right before the verb: What did you do? Nerede oturuyorsun? Where do you live? Ne zaman geldin? When did you come? Why did you come to us? How many days did he stay in Turkey? Niye, however, sounds a bit like an accusation, or as asking forjustification, so we advise you use one of the other two.

This is not a strict rule, however, hence the third example below: How much are those pears? Who is that singer? How is the weather over there? Where are you from? Exercise 1Match the Turkish questions on the right to the English translations on the left1 where does she work? You can always recognise whether aTurkish sentence is a question or not: This can be either a word from the list above kim, ne, nerede, etc. Exercise 2Say which type of question marker interrogative pronoun or mi you need in theTurkish translations of the following English sentences.

Keep in mind that the purposeof this exercise is to helpPage 42you sort out the different types of questions, not to give full, accurate translations which are given in the Key.

In -iyor sentences, the personal ending comes after the question marker. As youremember from Lesson 2, the personal endings express the subject. Some examples with other subjects: An exception to the rule that the personal ending comes after the question marker is thethird person plural they: Here are all the forms for present tense questions: Note again how vowel harmony works in the following examples. This type of sentence will be dealt with in Lesson 4.

Exercise 3Form questions from the following sentences, by using the question marker mi. Thefirst item has already been filled in. Do you see? Ben mi? Meanwhile Cem tests the telephone, but in vain. Allah allah! Bozuk herhalde. When did you come to Fethiye?

I got here a week ago. Is it nice around here? Yes, very nice. No, not you, I was obviously asking our guest! I went there yesterday. Oh no! Shall I help you? I am an electrician. Then please help this husband of mine, would you? Language pointPast tense questionsIn past tense questions, the question marker comes last, so after the personal markers: Present tense: In the present tense, the order is 1 verb stem plus 2 tense plus 3 question markerplus 4 personal ending: It will be explained inLesson 6.

Page 46gid- iyor mu- sun1 2 3 4In the past tense, on the other hand, it is 1 verb stem plus 2 tense plus 3 personalending plus 4 question marker.

Note that the question marker mi is always preceded by a space. More examples of typical past tense questions: A couple of notes on these examples: Exercise 4Below are some answers. You have to supply the questions. Their English versions havebeen given, but you can make the exercise harder by blocking them off. By way ofexample, the first item has been done. Three of the words all direct objects used in thisPage 47exercise contain what is called the accusative case suffix.

The thing or person that is seen, is the direct object. Turkish often adds asuffix to the noun that functions as the direct object in a sentence, something we willexplain more fully in Lesson 6.

Nerede oturuyorsun uz? Whatever is followed by mi is what isemphasised. You say that you are in London, go to London, or came fromLondon. Turkish does not have prepositions. Instead, it has postpositions and caseendings. We will leave the postpositions for later; for the time being the case endingswill suffice to express location and direction. The element expressing location is -de, and we have encountered it a few times, as inNerede oturuyorsun?

Thesame is true for other case markers. The ending -de is also used to express the time when something takes place. The words that arenot translated are all Turkish place names.

After vowels the form is -ye or -ya: I gave Aynur a present. I gave a present to Aynur. Did you give the cat its food? Did you give its food to the cat? Language pointDirection: Anayoldan geldiniz mi? Did you come via the motorway? We travelled through the Taurus Mountains. They came across the bridge. Do you remember the word nerede? Page 51nereye? Exercise 7Fill in the correct ending -den, -dan, -ten, -tan Istanbul is prettier than Tarsus.

Tarsus is less beautiful than İstanbul. You are my best friend. Postwar treaties subdivided the land between the various Allies such asthe Greeks, the English and the French. Although officially the sultan was still the headof state, a nationalist Turkish movement took over power.

He strongly believed in Turkish identity and self-assurance. The Arabic script wasreplaced by the Latin alphabet and efforts were made to clear the language of foreigninfluence.